studies, he wanted everybody to get benefited. He believed in sharing knowledge and not in hoarding of it and so he later became a professor of Political Science at the University.
Though Chanakya was just a professor in the Taxila University, which seemed to be far away from the happenings in the country, heacrually was able to influence the governments in a big way. His students looked up to him as an ideal teacher who inspired and exemplified great knowledge. They respected him and were ready to fight at any moment at his orders. Chanakya went from Takshashila to Pataliputra, which was famous as a centre of learning and was known to honour scholars. Chanakya's extraordinary scholarship and genius gained recognition among the scholars of Pataliputra, who honoured him. Later Chanakya became the president of the 'Sangha' (Trust).
He took a promising young boy of ten (Chandragupta Maurya), from the streets and
brought him up to become one of the greatest emperors of India. In the War of Independence for Northern India, the source of strength for Chandragupta and his army was the power of mind and the towering personality of Chanakya. After Alexander's death in Babylon, all his satraps were either killed or dislodged, one by one. Alexander's lieutenants divided his empire among themselves in 321 B.C. No realm east of the Indus was mentioned in that settlement. It meant that the Greeks themselves had accepted that this region had gone out of their rule.
Seeking revenge for being insulted in the court of the ruler of Magadha, Chanakya
vowed to dethrone the haughty Nanda king, who was harassing the people of the land. The Nanda kings' reign was marked with cruelty and imposition of heavy taxes on their subjects. Therefore, they earned the wrath of the people. With determination Chanakya as a single person stood opposed to the might of the Nandas and Amatya Rakshasa. He dethroned the Nandas, put Chandragupta on the throne, and also installed Amatya Rakshasa, who was trying his utmost to destroy Chandragupta, as the minister and created the great Maurya dynasty.
Chanakya was a very brilliant person. He was full of determination in achieving objectives. He was well-versed in all the 'Vedic Shastras' or branches of knowledge, an expert economist; a statesman par excellence. He was a master in the four methods of persuasion, enticement, sowing dissension, and punishment or war.: He was mature in the strategy of war, and very intelligent. one could make out what was going on his mind. So secretive was he in his method, and far-sighted. In any endeavour, his calculations never went wrong and he never missed his aim. He was at the same time very religious and given to strict renunciation. Apparently of this strict nature, he employed various methods carefully at the right time to destroy enemies. There was no branch of knowledge, which he had not mastered. He was widely experienced in the world. There seemed to be nothing, which he did not know. He was, in other words,
a personification of all things that make a genius. Considered in any way, people equal to Chanakya are very rare in the world. An expression "like the strategy of Chanakya", has become proverbial.
The whole nation was bewildered by the cleverness and wit of this seemingly benign
personality who went on to single-handedly unify the country with the sheer power of his character. Probably the most accurate description of Chanakya can be found in Nehru's words in the Discovery of India, "Chanakya has been called the Indian Machiavelli and to some extent the comparison is justified. But he was a much bigger person in every way, greater in intellect and reason."
Chanakya dreamt of a country reaching the zenith of development in terms of ideologies and social and economic development. A self-sufficient economy, which does not depend on foreign trade. An egalitarian society where there are equal opportunities for all. Establishment of new colonies for the augmentation of resources. He also advocated the development of the annexed colonies. His imperialistic views can be interpreted as the development of natural and man made resources. He lived his life working to his optimum capacity in pursuit of vision of a happy, strong and prosperous India.
His works have been faithfully preserved through word of mouth for well over two thousand years. Nitishastra, a treatise on the ideal way of life shows his in-depth study of the Indian way of life. Many of his nitis or policies have been compiled in the book, Chanakya Niti.
Uhanakya's Arthashastra also known as Kautiliya Arthashastra, is a classic statecraft.
It deals with the politics (Raja Dharma), leadership, qualities and disciplines required for a Rajarishi - a wise and virtuous king.
According to Kautilya, a Rajarishi is one who has self-control, having conquered
the inimical temptations of the senses; cultivates the intellect by association with elders; keeps his eyes open through spies; is ever active in promoting the security and welfare of the people; ensures the observance (by the people) of their dharma by authority and example; improves his own discipline by (continuing his) learning in all branches of knowledge; and endears himself to his people by enriching them and doing good to them.
- Concerning Discipline
- Concerning Law
- The Conduct of Courtiers
- The End of the Six-Fold Policy
- The Work of an Invader
- The Conduct of Corporations
- Strategic Means to Capture a Fortress
- The Plan of a Treatise
- The Duties of Government Superintendents
- The Removal of Thoms
- The Source of Sovereign States
- Concerning Vices and Calamities
- Relating to War
- Concerning a Powerful Enemy
- Secret Means